Massive increase in transistors ~5.7B 580 vs a ~11B 6600XT - on top of the cost of each transistor stagnating, then even slightly increasing. Qualification, Verification and Validation all massively increased over the last few nodes. Inflation from 2015 -> 2021 has a cumulative rate of inflation of ~15%. People need to stop pretending like a chip designed in 2015 is the same as chip in 2021 because they are both "mid range". That's not to mention that, at least in Nvidia's case - they are one of the best companies in the world to work for. They pay extremely well, their campus is amazing, they have great benefits packages, etc. So even if these companies are increasing margins it's nice to know its' going to the people that actually build the stuff.